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Table 1 Governance Interactions between the Indonesian State and RSPO: from Coordination to Competition, and from Competition to Limited Coordination

From: Friend or foe? The various responses of the Indonesian state to sustainable non-state palm oil initiatives

  Agenda setting Rule formation Implementation Evaluation
Period 2003–2006 2006–2008 2009-now 2010-now
Micro-level No interaction Coordination based on personal relationships among officials Limited coordination based on personal relationships among officials Limited coordination based on personal relationships among officials
Meso-level No interaction Coordination through discursive articulation of principles and criteria Competition emerged after the Indonesian state decided to develop the national standard (ISPO). The state developed competition through imitation by following steps for formulating RSPO. The state also developed competition through niche-carving by referring to national regulations related to sustainable palm oil principles.
Often the state developed competition through confrontation as the state officials criticised RSPO in their formal speeches.
There were signs of developing coordination based on Indonesian state actors’ awareness of RSPO’s international recognition, which was not easily gained with ISPO. The state actors were even enthusiastic for coordination for harmonisation of both standards. However, so far this has resulted in only limited coordination.
Macro-level Co-optation by non-state actors to the palm oil producing countries is considered a failure in addressing social and environmental impacts. No interaction No interaction Not enough information