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Table 4 Result of Paired Samples Test for different stakeholders for Two Periods P1 and P2

From: Implications of corporate governance on financial performance: an analytical review of governance and social reporting reforms in India

   Paired Differences  
Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean Lower Upper T
Pair 1 SHR1 P2 - SHR1 P1 0.265 0.563 0.068 0.128 0.401 3.877***
Pair 2 SHR2 P2 - SHR2 P1 −0.074 0.527 0.064 −0.201 0.054 −1.150
Pair 3 SHR3 P2 - SHR3 P1 0.456 0.679 0.082 0.292 0.620 5.539***
Pair 4 SHR4 P2 - SHR4 P1 0.221 0.619 0.075 0.071 0.370 2.938**
Pair 5 SHR5 P2 - SHR5 P1 0.456 0.531 0.064 0.327 0.584 7.084***
Pair 6 EMR1 P2 - EMR1 P1 0.088 0.286 0.035 0.019 0.157 2.546*
Pair 7 EMR2 P2 - EMR2 P1 0.441 0.870 0.106 0.230 0.652 4.179***
Pair 8 EMR3 P2 - EMR3 P1 0.221 0.418 0.051 0.119 0.322 4.355***
Pair 9 EMR4 P2 - EMR4 P1 0.397 1.039 0.126 0.146 0.648 3.152**
Pair 10 SCR1 P2 - SCR1 P1 0.250 0.817 0.099 0.052 0.448 2.523*
Pair 11 SCR2 P2 - SCR2 P1 0.324 0.657 0.080 0.165 0.482 4.063***
Pair 12 CMR1 P2 - CMR1 P1 0.515 0.837 0.102 0.312 0.717 5.068***
Pair 13 CMR2 P2 - CMR2 P1 0.338 0.874 0.106 0.127 0.550 3.190**
Pair 14 ENR1 P2 - ENR1 P1 0.426 0.676 0.082 0.263 0.590 5.201***
Pair 15 ENR2 P2 - ENR2 P1 0.412 0.652 0.079 0.254 0.570 5.209***
Pair 16 ENR3 P2 - EMN3 P1 0.088 0.728 0.088 −0.088 0.264 1.000
Pair 17 CGP P2 - CGP P1 4.794 4.013 0.487 3.823 5.766 9.851***
  1. * p ≤ 0.05; ** p ≤ 0.01; *** p ≤ 0.001
  2. Source: Calculated by Researcher using SPSS