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Table 6 Test of stationarity at Level

From: Analysis of corporate sustainability performance and corporate financial performance causal linkage in the Indian context

  p-values
  Levin, Lin & Chu Im, Pasaran and Shin W-Stat ADF-Fisher Chi-square PP-Fisher Chi-Square
ROA 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
ROE 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
Tobins’Q 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
ESG 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
E 0.0000 0.0034 0.0072 0.0103
S 0.0000 0.0081 0.2395 0.0014
G 0.0000 0.0001 0.0033 0.0010