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Table 6 Summary of respondents’ point of view on UGVs

From: Potential applications of unmanned ground and aerial vehicles to mitigate challenges of transport and logistics-related critical success factors in the humanitarian supply chain

Potential applicationsBulk deliveries of food and materials, continuous automated replenishmentSynced dispatch and delivery system, easier convoys and platooning possibilitiesUseable in flat terrains, transportation within the countries.Within a country where road infrastructure is available, they can be an advantage over traditional vehiclesCan be used for within-country logistics and transport, instant dispatch and deliveryMore straightforward formulation of convoys, bulk deliveries of supplies
Foreseeable advantagesLess reliance on human resource, avoid driving restrictions, quicker deliveriesEfficient delivery of supplies, no driving restrictions, environment-friendly, seamless transportation across countries for instance in EUSustainable transportation, it can mitigate the problem of vehicles and drivers shortageContinuous deliveries, live tracking of goods and vehicles, less CO2 emissionsLess dependence on drivers, frequent deliveries can help mitigate limited capacities and vehicles problemNo need of drivers, cost-saving, environment-friendly transport, real-time tracking of vehicles and video surveillance
Foreseeable challengesAcceptability among the people is a bigger challenge than technology, repair & maintenance during field operations, insuranceAcceptability, vulnerable to hack (system security), the safety of the goods in transitPublic acceptance, driving in difficult terrains, crossing borderers, legal issues, cost, vandalism, road blockages, security issuesLegal issues, cost of maintenance, cyber security and on-road risk of looting, civil acceptanceSecurity risks, misuse of vehicles if hacked, acceptance among people, road safety, driving in difficult terrainAttack on vehicles with supplies, navigation in difficult terrain or bad weather, maintenance, legal issues, public acceptance
Expected maturity timeline202520302025203520302035
Would your org. Use UGVs in the future?Yes, we will embrace this new form of mobility.Yes, we might use them but surely not in the early stages.Yes we are eager to use technology to support relief operationsYes, we might use UGVs but can not say for sure when.Yes, we will adopt UGVs if they are regulated in Pakistan and other countries of operations.Yes, we can use them once they are available and tested for their fitness in the humanitarian setup.