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Table 2 Governance Interactions between the Indonesian State and IPOP: from Coordination to Competition, and from Competition to Chaos, and from Chaos to Co-optation

From: Friend or foe? The various responses of the Indonesian state to sustainable non-state palm oil initiatives

  Agenda setting Rule formation Implementation Evaluation
Period 2014 2015–2016 2015–2016 Middle of 2016
Micro-level No interaction Lack of support from KADIN figureheads with good relationships with the key state agencies related to palm oil issues Lack of support from KADIN figureheads that have good relationships with the key state agencies related to palm oil issues No interaction
Meso-level No interaction Coordination for developing IPOP as a high-profile initiative in the national and international levels
Co-optation by the Indonesian state through the key state officials responsible in the development of the palm oil sector
Competition through confrontation as IPOP continued operating despite being criticised heavily by key state officials in the palm oil sector
Competition through threats occurred as key state officials wanted to disband IPOP.
Chaos as IPOP faced uncertainty due to vocal criticism from key state officials, but it did not have any problems working with ministerial officials from the lower echelons and local government officials; meanwhile IPOP was unsuccessful in getting clarification of their positions.
Co-optation as the antitrust investigation became a sensitive issue for member companies; they finally decided to disband IPOP.
Macro-level Coordination for formulating a pledge between business actors (the sustainable development group of KADIN), state actors (REDD+ Taskforce and BKPM), and civil society actors (environmental NGOs) No interaction Chaos as IPOP faced an antitrust investigation from KPPU No interaction